Common Urology Problems


Urine leaks is the inability to empty the bladder completely. Urinary retention can be acute or chronic. Acute urinary retention happens suddenly and lasts only a short time. People with acute urinary retention cannot urinate at all, even though they have a full bladder. Acute urinary retention, a potentially life-threatening medical condition, requires immediate emergency treatment. Acute urinary retention can cause great discomfort or pain.Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder. Blockage can be caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), urethral strictures, bladder stones, a cystocele, constipation, or tumors. Urine leaks when you exert pressure on your bladder by coughing, sneezing, laughing, exercising or lifting something heavy. Urge incontinence. You have a sudden, intense urge to urinate followed by an involuntary loss of urine. You may need to urinate often, including throughout the night.

Urine Leak has various causes and is classified accordingly:

  • • Physiological is common in children till the age of 3 years.
  • • Stress incontinence occurs during the act of sneezing and coughing. In males after prostate surgery and in females while standing and straining.
  • • Urgency is due to the over activity of Detrusor muscle resulting from inflammation to bladder because of UTI, stone or cystitis.
  • • Overflow is due to incomplete evacuation of the bladder. Or retention of Urine.
  • • Psychogenic incontinence is common in children to draw attention of others.
  • • Giggle incontinence is common among girls of young age, a large amount of urine gets leak while laughing.
  • • Neurogenic incontinence is the result of loss in neural control of the muscles involving contraction of sphincters.
  • • Mechanical incontinence can be congenital or acquired.
  • • Total incontinence is the defect present with birth due to congenital problems, there may be a hole in fistula or may be problems in urinary system.

There are two general types of urinary retention: obstructive and non-obstructive. If there is an obstruction (for example, kidney stones), urine cannot flow freely through the urinary track. Non-obstructive causes include a weak bladder muscle and nerve problems that interfere with signals between the brain and the bladder. If the nerves aren’t working properly, the brain may not get the message that the bladder is full.

Some of the most common causes of non-obstructive urinary retention are:

  • • Stroke
  • • Vaginal childbirth
  • • Pelvic injury or trauma
  • • Impaired muscle or nerve function due to medication or anaesthesia
  • • Accidents that injure the brain or spinal cord

Obstructive retention may result from:

  • • Cancer
  • • Kidney or bladder stones
  • • Enlarged prostate (BPH) in men

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